Edinburgh, Scotland

Edinburgh is enchanting.

Arthur’s Seat was formed by an extinct volcano, creating an 822-feet hill with a series of cliffs known as Salisbury’s Crags at the top. Being the highest point in Edinburgh, Arthur’s Seat is renowned as the peak of Holyrood Park.  It remains unknown why the hill was named ‘Arthur.’ Some people thought it was named after King Arthur or just named after someone named Arthur. The Seat is a notch between the highest point of the peak and a secondary point of the hill.

Royal Yacht Britannia Museum: The yacht belonged to Queen Elizabeth II from 1954 to 1997. Britannia was the first Royal Yacht to be built with complete ocean-going capacity and designed as a Royal residence to entertain guests around the world. When the yacht was decommissioned in 1997, it marked the end of a long tradition of British Royal Yachts, dating back to 1660 and the reign of Charles II.

Nat. Museum of Scotland

Edinburgh Castle

Timeline of the Castle:

340 million B.C.E. – Castle Rock formed after volcanic eruption

900 B.C.E. – Inhabited by humans for the first time

638 C.E. – The city of Din Eidyn was captured by the English and renamed Edinburgh 

c. 1070 C.E. – Malcolm III married an English princess later known as Saint Margaret of Scotland 

1130 C.E. – Margaret’s son, David I, built on Castle Rock the edifice that is still standing to this day

1286 C.E. – Alexander III died without a successor. Edward I of England declared himself feudal overlord of Scotland.

1296 C.E. – Edinburgh Castle was captured by the English under the command of Edward I

1313 C.E. – Castle was recaptured by the Scots

1334 C.E. – Castle was captured by the British again

1341 C.E. – Castle was once again recaptured by the Scots

1356 C.E. – David II rebuilt the castle; David’s Tower was named in his honor

1511 C.E. – James IV built the great hall that can still be seen to this day

1573 C.E. – The Lang Siege destroyed David’s Tower

1578 C.E. – Castle was rebuilt

1633 C.E. – Charles I became the last Scottish monarch to inhabit Edinburgh Castle

1650 C.E. – Oliver Cromwell executed Charles I and captured the castle

1689 C.E. – Members of the first Jacobite Rising failed to recapture the castle

1745 C.E. – Bonnie Prince Charlie and the members of the fifth Jacobite Rising failed to recapture the castle again

1757 C.E. – Edinburgh Castle was turned into a prison and held thousands of military prisoners from the Seven Years War, the American Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars 

1822 C.E. – George IV of England became the first ruling monarch to visit the castle in nearly two hundred years

1927 C.E. – Part of the castle was turned into the Scottish National War Memorial 

1945 C.E. – Edinburgh Castle survived World War II

1999 C.E. – Edinburgh Castle became one of the most popular tourist attractions in Scotland 

Palace of Holyroadhouse: Founded as a monastery in by David I in 1128. Mary the Queen of Scots, lived at the Palace of Holyroodhouse for only a few years in the 16th century. At the end of the 15th century, James IV had ordered a palace at Holyrood to replace an existing royal guesthouse by the Abbey. Mary’s father, James V, built a massive tower and had rooms within the palace lavishly furnished for his French wives. When Queen Mary arrived at the palace in 1561, she chose to stay in the apartments where her mother, Marie de Guise, had lived. Between 1561 and 1567, Mary entertained dignitaries, held masques, loved and suffered in the palace. She met John Knox in a series of confrontational audiences. First, she married Lord Darnley. Then, she married Bothwell at Holyroodhouse. Her private secretary, David Rizzio, was brutally murdered there and Mary’s life was threatened.

Calton Hill: Initiated in 1816, a year after Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, it was meant to be a replica of the Parthenon in Athens, as a memorial to those who had died in the Napoleonic Wars. Building began in 1822, but funds ran dry and the architect, William Playfair only saw a facade of his building completed.

Inchcolm Abbey and Island: Originally a priory founded by David I, the abbey saw conflict as well as calm. The island is also famed for its seals and other wildlife, and its coastal defences from the two World Wars. These were put in place to protect Rosyth naval base, the Forth Bridge and Edinburgh.

REFERENCE: Google Earth

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